Gout is an arthritis-like condition that occurs when there is too much uric acid present in the bloodstream. When this happens, joint inflammation occurs, followed by intense joint pain.

Symptoms of gout are caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood which crystallize and are deposited in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.

A positive diagnosis for gout is confirmed clinically by the visualization of the characteristic crystals in joint fluid. If the diagnosis is in doubt, synovial fluid analysis should be conducted.

Hyperuricemia is the underlying cause of gout, which can occur for a number of reasons, including genetic predisposition, diet, or underexcretion of urate (the salts of uric acid).

Gout is mostly found in overweight men over the age of 35.



GOUT
THE GLYCEMIC INDEX, COFFEE & TEA



The relationship between incidence of gout and consumption of high glycemic sugars, and the relationship between gout and coffee and tea, has been researched and published in peer-reviewed journals.

There are two very different effects related to the ingestion of high glycemic sugars, and the ingestion of coffee and tea on the condition of gout:

High glycemic sugars elevate risk of gout and worsen symptoms, while low glycemic sugars and ingredients do not cause this effect
Coffee & tea have proven benefits

In this report, we will discuss and identify the clinical relationship between:

Gout and ingestion of high glycemic sugars
Gout and ingestion of coffee and tea




INGESTION OF HIGH GLYCEMIC SUGARS
& PRODUCTS ARE RELATED TO GOUT



High glycemic ingredients elevate insulin levels (insulinogenic) in humans, which is a very negative metabolic event, leading to weight gain, obesity, shortened lifespan, and increased risk of gout.

Because of the relationship between high glycemic sugars and insulin-response, consuming high glycemic insulinogenic beverages, foods, and Nutraceuticals, exacerbates (worsens) the condition of gout, and greatly elevates the risk of developing gout.

Sugars and ingredients that elevate blood glucose (high glycemic) levels include sucrose (table sugar), honey, maltose, maltodextrins, and high-fructose corn syrup. The list of other known high glycemic sweeteners, sugars, and ingredients is quite extensive and spans 27-years of research (Glycemic Research Institute / Comprehensive List of Sugars / Sweeteners).



The mechanism by which insulinogenic ingredients worsen and increase risk of gout:



Ingestion of insulinogenic sugars prevents the excretion of uric acid from the body
As the concentration of uric acid in the body increases, uric acid in the joint liquid increases, causing the uric acid to precipitate into crystals
High uric acid levels are a known precursor of gout 


COFFEE PROVEN BENEFICIAL IN DECREASING RISK & INCIDENCE OF GOUT

JOURNAL OF ARTHRITIS CARE
& RESEARCH



A large-scale study published in the journal Arthritis Care & Research (1) examined the relationship between coffee, tea, caffeine intake.

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, and more than 50 percent of Americans drink it at the average rate of 2 cups per day.

Because of this widespread consumption, coffee’s potential effects have important implications for public and individual health.

The study, led by Hyon K. Choi, University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, included over 14,000 men and women, at least 20 years old, who consented to a medical exam in which blood and urine specimens were obtained.

Results of the peer-reviewed published trial showed that:



Coffee is beneficial in decreasing risk and incidence of gout in humans
4 cups of coffee per day lowers uric acid levels, attributed to the natural polyphenols found in coffee
High uric acid levels in the blood are a precursor of gout, the most common inflammatory arthritis in adult men
Coffee consumption is associated with lower uric acid levels, which appears to be due to natural phytochemicals other than caffeine
The results showed that levels of uric acid in the blood significantly decreased with increasing coffee intake, but not with tea intake
The risk of gout was 40 percent lower for men who drank 4 to 5 cups a day and 59 percent lower for men who drank 6 or more cups a day than for men who never drank coffee
There was no beneficial association between total caffeine intake from beverages and uric acid levels



LONG-TERM STUDY OF COFFEE & GOUT:
AMERICAL JOURNAL OF
CLINICAL NUTRITION



The Arthritis Care & Research study was independently validated and published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2) in 2010.

Researchers examined the relationship between coffee intake and incidence of gout in a large subject group of 89,433 female humans over a 26-year period. The study included the consumption of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and total caffeine.

The research project determined that “Long-term coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of incident gout in women.” This data is consistent with the findings reported in the journal of Arthritis Care & Research.


COFFEE DECREASES URIC ACID LEVELS
JOURNAL OF ARTHRITIS
and RHEUMATISM


The journal of Arthritis and Rheumatism (3) reported that, in both men and women, “Serum uric acid levels decrease with increasing coffee intake.”

Researchers studied data from 14,758 men and women, and examined the relationship between coffee, tea, and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level using linear regression.

Additionally, they examined the relationship with hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >7.0 mg/dl among men and >5.7 mg/dl among women) using logistic regression.

CONCLUSIONS:


Coffee consumption is associated with lower serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia frequency, but tea consumption is not.
The inverse association with coffee appears to be via components of coffee other than caffeine


COFFEE VERSUS TEA


According to the researchers, the variable between the gout-reducing effects of coffee versus tea appear to be related to the components of coffee. Coffee contains a vast amount of natural phytochemicals other than caffeine.

One specific component of tea has been identified by researchers as a potential nutritional adjunct in the treatment of gout (4).

Epigallo catechin-O-gallate (EGCG), the most active epicatechin in green tea was identified by researchers as “A potent inducer of apoptosis and an inhibitor of telomerase activity” and an anti-oxidant that provides reduction of inflammatory processes (High uric acid levels in the blood are a precursor of gout, the most common inflammatory arthritis in adult men).

In humans, EGCG acts on different processes, and triggers various molecular mechanisms of action.

According to researchers, tea does not appear to effect gout either positively or negatively, while EGCG (from green tea) may positively support nutritional intervention related to incidence of gout.



LOW-FAT DAIRY PRODUCTS
DECREASE RISK OF GOUT


The New England Journal of Medicine (5) published a trial that followed 47,150 males over a 12-year period, to determine risk and causes of gout.

The research team followed 47,150 men with no prior history of gout over a 12-year period. During the 12-year period, 730 men were diagnosed with gout.

Study participants who consumed the highest amount of meat were 40 percent more likely to have gout than those who ate the least amount of meat and study participants who ate the most seafood were 50 percent more likely to develop gout.

The researchers also reported that:

Low-fat dairy products decreased the risk of gout
“The incidence of gout decreased with increasing intake of [low-fat] dairy products.”
“Furthermore, we found a strong inverse association between the consumption of dairy products, especially low-fat dairy products, and the incidence of gout.”

In regards to incidence of gout and low-fat dairy intake, the researchers stated “The multivariate relative risk of gout among men in the highest quintile of dairy intake, as compared with those in the lowest quintile, was 0.56 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.74; P for trend <0.001).”



GOUT: CAUSAL FACTORS

Contributing factors related to the
development of gout include:



Heredity: Genetics contributes to 60% of variability in uric acid levels)
Consumption of alcoholic or soft drink beverages on a daily basis
Smoking
Regular use of medications such as aspirin
Poor diet
High-protein diets, such as the Atkins diet
Metabolic Syndrome and/or Obesity:

A body mass index greater than or equal to 35 increases a male's risk of gout threefold

The combination of abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and abnormal lipid levels occurs in nearly 75% of all gout cases
Chronic lead exposure and lead-contaminated alcohol are risk factors for gout due to the harmful effect of lead on kidney function
Gout may be secondary to sleep apnea via the release of purines from oxygen-starved cells - Treatment of sleep apnea can lessen the occurrence of gout attacks
Fasting and/or severe dieting can raise uric acid levels and cause gout to worsen


Foods most likely to cause gout/exacerbate gout:



Red meats, seafood and poultry:

Study participants who consumed the highest amount of meat were 40 percent more likely to have gout than those who ate the least amount of meat.

Study participants who ate the most seafood were 50 percent more likely to have gout.
Drinks most likely to cause gout include alcoholic beverages, especially beer, wine and soda.


Foods that help prevent gout:

 

Coffee, vitamin C and low-fat dairy products decrease risk of gout
Physical fitness appear to decrease the risk of gout
Vegetables (even high-purine veggies) such as: peas, beans, mushrooms, cauliflower, spinach


Drink Plenty of Water

  
Drinking the daily recommended dose of water is the best prevention of gout because water can help remove uric acid from the body. Aim for eight to sixteen 8-ounce (237 milliliter) glasses a day.


RESEARCH INTEGRATION

   
The Boresha Medical Advisory Board strives to integrate current valid research into its product line, and to update products based on important new findings in the field of nutrition, obesity, diabetes, and anti-aging.

Boresha’s B-Skinny Coffee and Nuvo Gene Tea™ are based on 27-years of research, and reflect current scientific evidence and protocols for safe and efficacious Thermogenic Nutraceuticals
Boresha products do not contain any High Glycemic ingredients, and are Certified Low Glycemic
Boresha’s B-Creamy coffee-creamer is a -0- Fat, 100% natural dairy product

B-Sweet is a completely natural Low Glycemic, Diabetic Friendly fruit sweetener backed by years of clinical trials

The molecule EGCG is a vital ingredient in Boresha’s Nuvo Gene Tea™


Copyright® November 2010-Updated: July 2011
No copies of this article may be made or distributed
without prior written permission from the authors.

    

 

REFERENCES

     

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